With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776.
The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city.
The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with massive waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century.
In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution, with Bernardino Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country.
Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci.The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country.As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 15, respectively.The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital.
and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name 'Argentine Republic'.